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A Clarification of Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Month of Ramaḍān

   Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīnShaykh Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyá al-NajmīShaykh Muqbil ibn Hādī al-WādiʿīShaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn BāzShaykh Khālid ibn Ḍahwī al- ẒufayrīShaykh ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al-ʿAbbādShaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-AlbānīShaykh ʿUbayd al-Jābirī

The blessed month of Ramaḍān is a time of worship and righteous deeds. However, during this month, many misnomers and false practices exist. The following is a compilation of common doubts and misconceptions corrected and clarified by Islamic scholars.

bismallah

  

  Consequently, when some doubts and misconceptions affiliated with the month of Ramaḍān became widespread, I saw it fit to clarify some of them so that people will not be deluded by them, for how many a time have you heard the expression: Whoever dies during Ramaḍān will enter paradise without any reckoning, or that they will not be punished in the grave? Or the expression: The beginning of Ramaḍān is reserved for Allāh’s mercy, its middle for His forgiveness, and its end for redemption from the Fire?
 

 

A Clarification of Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Month of Ramaḍān, as Clarified by Some of Our Noble Scholars

Verily, the Book, the Sunnah, and the consensus of the scholars have all affirmed the fact that enjoining the good and forbidding the evil is something incumbent upon at least a portion of the Ummah. 

Allāh, the Most High, has spoken in numerous places in His Glorious Book about this affair, for He said in one place:

وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ ۚوَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ﴿١٠٤

"Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good [Islām], enjoining [i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islām orders one to do] and forbidding [polytheism and disbelief and all that Islām has forbidden]. And it is they who are the successful." [Sūrah Āl-Imrān, 3:104]


Likewise, the Prophet (ﷺ) has made mention of it on many occasions; for instance, he (ﷺ) said: "Whosoever of you sees an evil, let him change it with his hand, and if he is not able to do so, then let him change it with his tongue, and if he is not able to do so, then with his heart—and that is the weakest of faith." (Reported by Muslim.)

As a result, the scholars—both past and present—have unanimously agreed that enjoining the good and forbidding the evil is mandatory upon whoever has the ability to do so. Ibn Taymiyyah (رحمه الله) said: "The scholars of the religion have agreed that enjoining the good and forbidding the evil is mandatory upon the people" (Jāmi’ al-Masāil, vol 3, pg. 381)

Also, al-Nawawī (رحمه الله) stated when commenting on his (ﷺ) statement: "Let him change it with his hand" the following: “Therefore, it is a mandatory affair, as agreed by the Imāms” (Ṣharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, vol.2, pg. 22).

And from enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, is the issue of clarifying truth from falsehood and not remaining silent about it. Allāh, the Most High, has said:

وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٤٢

"And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know it." [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:42]


Furthermore, He mentioned that this characteristic of concealing the truth and remaining silent about it is from the characteristics of the people of the Book. He said:

لُعِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ عَلَىٰ لِسَانِ دَاوُودَ وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوا وَّكَانُوا يَعْتَدُونَ ﴿٧٨ كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَن مُّنكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ ۚ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ ﴿٧٩


"Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of Dāwūd [David] and ʿĪsá [Jesus], son of Maryam [Mary]. That was because they disobeyed [Allāh and the messengers] and were ever transgressing beyond bounds. They used not to forbid one another from the munkar [wrong, evildoing, sins, polytheism, disbelief, etc.] which they committed. Vile indeed was what they used to do." [Sūrah al-Maʾidah, 5:78-79]


Consequently, when some doubts and misconceptions affiliated with the month of Ramaḍān became widespread, I saw it fit to clarify some of them so that people will not be deluded by them, for how many a time have you heard the expression: Whoever dies during Ramaḍān will enter paradise without any reckoning, or that they will not be punished in the grave? Or the expression: The beginning of Ramaḍān is reserved for Allāh’s mercy, its middle for His forgiveness, and its end for redemption from the Fire?

Therefore, the following is a series of brief articles highlighting a few common doubts and misconceptions that are often repeated upon the tongues of the common folk, specifically upon the inception of this blessed month. Additionally, in some cases, mention will be made about their origin.

I ask Allāh by His Beautiful Names and Perfect Attributes to grant me tawfīq in this venture, and to make it a source of benefit for the Muslims.

Written by: Musa Shaleem Mohammed
13th June, 2016.


The Misconceptions/Doubts: 

1. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Name of the Month of Ramaḍān and Their Clarification

2. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Merits of the Month of Ramaḍān and Their Clarification

3. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Laws of Fasting in Ramaḍān and Their Clarification

4. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Tarāwīḥ Prayer

5. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with Laylat al-Qadr and Their Clarification

6. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with I‘tikāf and Their Clarification

7. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with Zakāh and Zakāt al-Fiṭr and Their Clarification 

8. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Day of ‘Eīd and Their Clarification

 


1. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Name of the Month of Ramaḍān and Their Clarification

Doubt/Misconception 01: Ramaḍān Is from the Names of Allāh; Hence, We Must Say: The Month of Ramaḍān When Referring to the Month

This misconception arose from a Ḥadīth which has no basis in the authentic Sunnah of the Messenger (ﷺ).

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) stated while listing several benefits derived from the conversation that took place between the Messenger (ﷺ) and the bedouin Arab who said to him (ﷺ): "I had sexual intercourse with my wife during the day in Ramaḍān," "From the benefits of the Ḥadīth is: The permissibility of simply saying: Ramaḍān. It is not compulsory to say: The month of Ramaḍān; [however,] some people say that this month should be referred to as: The month of Ramaḍān and that it is disliked or ḥarām to say: Ramaḍān. They use as their evidence a fabricated Ḥadīth: 'Do not say Ramaḍān, for verily, it is from the Names of Allāh.'"33 34

Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله) said:35

No one has ever mentioned that Ramaḍān is from Allāh's Names; [thus,] it is not permissible to call Him by this, by unanimous agreement. [Rather,] it is found in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and Muslim on the authority of Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "When Ramaḍān comes, the gates of Jannah are opened."36

2. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Merits of the Month of Ramaḍān and Their Clarification

Doubt/Misconception 01: Whoever Dies during Ramaḍān Will Enter Paradise without Any Reckoning

The origin of this misconception is the misinterpretation of a renowned Ḥadīth the questioner mentions below.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: "Does the Messenger’s (ﷺ) statement: 'When Ramaḍān comes, the gates of Jannah are opened, the gates to the Fire are closed, and the Shayāṭīn are shackled'1 mean: whoever dies during Ramaḍān will enter Paradise without any reckoning? We hope for some clarification from you in this matter, and may Allāh reward you."

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) stated the following:2

The affair is not like that; rather, this means that the gates of paradise are opened as a form of encouragement for the workers [i.e. those who are diligent in doing good deeds], in order to make it easy for them to enter into Paradise, and the gates of the Fire are closed for the people of īmān in order to abstain from sins, so that they will not approach these gates. It does not mean that whoever dies in Ramaḍān will enter Paradise without reckoning. The only ones who will enter Paradise without reckoning are those who execute what is binding upon them from righteous actions and possess the characteristics that the Messenger (ﷺ) has described them with when he said: "They are those who do not request ruqyá [performed on them], cauterisation, nor do they rely on omens, but rather, they rely upon their Lord."3

Doubt/Misconception 02: Whoever Dies in Ramaḍān Will Not Be Punished in His Grave

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: "How true is the statement: Whoever dies in Ramaḍān or on the day of Jumuʾah, will not be punished with the punishment of the grave?”

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) responded with the following:4

The punishment of the grave is something established for everyone who deserves it, whether they died on Jumuʿah, or in Ramaḍān, or at any other time. Consequently, the Muslims say in the tashah‘hud of every prayer: I seek refuge in Allāh from the punishment of Jahannam, from the punishment of the grave, from the trials of life and death, and from the trial of the Dajjāl.

However, the two angels who ask about a person’s religion, Lord, and Prophet, do not come to the one who dies struggling in Allāh's path [i.e. the mujāhid]. This is because the glimmer of the sword over his head is a greater trial and test for him, and it is a greater evidence that he is a believer; otherwise, he would not have exposed his neck to the enemies of Allāh [i.e. he would not have put his life on the line].

Doubt/Misconception 03: All of the Shayāṭīn Are Shackled during Ramaḍān

Perhaps, this misconception stems from the generality found in the Ḥadīth mentioned by the questioner; however, mention was made of another Ḥadīth which specifies which of the Shayāṭīn are shackled. Furthermore, this generality is clearly contradicted by reality, since we see some Muslims either remaining upon their disobedience after the commencement of Ramaḍān or increasing in it.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: "What is meant by the Prophet's (ﷺ) statement: ‘Verily, the Shayāṭīn are confined in Ramaḍān?’ Is this confinement literal or not [i.e. metaphorical]? And does this apply to all of the Shayāṭīn? I hope for some clarification."

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) responded:5

The Prophet (ﷺ) clarified what was meant by this when he said: "Thus, they do not get away with what they would usually get away with previously [i.e. prior to Ramaḍān],”6 meaning, they are unable to misguide in the way that they would misguide previously.

Therefore, they are not fully shackled in the sense that they are unable to tempt someone; rather, they tempt, but it is not like how they would tempt outside of Ramaḍān, based upon his (ﷺ) statement: "Thus, they do not get away with what they would usually get away with previously [i.e. prior to Ramaḍān]."

This is from one perspective. From another perspective, there has come in some Aḥadīth the expression: "The marada Shayāṭīn are shackled,"7 meaning, the strongest in their demonisation. Therefore, based upon this, other than them [i.e. the strongest of the Shayāṭīn] are capable of tempting people.

Some people say: How is it that the Shayāṭīn are shackled, yet still we witness some people increase in their evil during Ramaḍān. We say: Other than the rebellious [i.e. other than the strongest of the Shayāṭīn] have overpowered them, or it is said: If it wasn't for Ramaḍān, the temptations would have been worse. This interpretation is closest to reality, since the people of goodness possess a desire to do goodness and to distance themselves from evil; whereas, the people of evil may increase in their evil during Ramaḍān.

Shaykh Muqbil ibn Hādī al-Wādiʿī (رحمه الله) was also asked a similar question, to which he stated the following:8

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "When Ramaḍān comes, the gates of Jannah are opened; the gates to the Fire are closed, and the Shayāṭīn are shackled.”9 Also, it has occurred in the Ṣaḥīḥ of Ibn Khuzaymah the following: "And the maradah Shayāṭīn are shackled." The meaning of the expression, "the maradah Shayāṭīn" is the major/senior ones who are rebellious against Allāh; they are the ones who are shackled. This does not prevent the remainder of the Shayāṭīn to incite and cast between the people hatred and enmity. This does not prevent that.

There remains the issue of the desires of the soul, for verily, some souls are wretched/wicked and consequently, it is what summons the onset of fitnah, not Shaytān himself. 

 

Doubt/Misconception 04: Whoever Intentionally Breaks His Fast during Ramaḍān Will Never Be Able to Make Up for It, even If He Fasts for an Eternity

Without a doubt, this misconception originated from a weak Ḥadīth, as our scholars have clearly clarified.

The following question was directed to Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله): "Whoever intentionally breaks his fast is requested to make it up; however, there has occurred in a Ḥadīth: 'Whoever intentionally breaks his fast during Ramaḍān would never be able to make up for it, even if he fasts for an eternity.'10 We would like some clarification."

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) said:11

This Ḥadīth is weak, as viewed by many of the people of knowledge. Therefore, if it is weak, then we must return to the basic/fundamental principle of: If an individual ruins his worship, it is then incumbent upon him to make it up. In the same way if an individual was praying then he ruined his prayer because of passing wind, laughing, eating or drinking, it is then incumbent upon him to make up this prayer; similarly, the fast. If he ruined it, it is incumbent upon him to make it up.

Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) was asked: "If someone breaks his fast during the day in Ramaḍān, does he have to make up that day? And is there a kaffārah [i.e. an expiation]?"

His (رحمه الله) response was as follows:12

As for breaking the fast by eating, drinking, or by any other means, then he does not have to pay a kaffārah, but he has to make tawbah, have remorse for intentionally breaking his fast, be determined not to return to that, make istighfār abundantly, and make up that day.

As for the Ḥadīth: "Whoever intentionally breaks his fast during Ramaḍān would never be able to make up for it, even if he fasts for an eternity," then it is weak, as viewed by the people of knowledge. It is not authentic; therefore, what is correct is for him to make up one day of fast [i.e. the day he intentionally broke his fast] and to make tawbah.

Doubt/Misconception 05: The Reward for Performing a Supererogatory Act during Ramaḍān Is Equivalent to That of an Obligatory Act, and the Reward for Performing an Obligatory Act in it Is Equivalent to That of Seventy Obligatory Acts

Like the previous misconception, this misconception originated from a weak Ḥadīth; in fact, it is the very Ḥadīth the previous misconception originated from.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked:

"I came across a Ḥadīth: 'Whoever performs an obligatory act during Ramaḍān is like the one who performs seventy obligatory acts at any other time, and whoever performs a supererogatory act is like the one who performs an obligatory act at any other time. And whoever intentionally breaks his fast during Ramaḍān would never be able to make up for it, even if he fasts for an eternity.'13

I read that this Ḥadīth is weak; however, the imāms of the various masjids, as well as those on the radio, speak as though it is authentic. Hence, I hope for a response and some guidance from your eminence in this matter, and may Allāh reward you with goodness."

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) responded with the following:14

The aforementioned Ḥadīth is as the questioner mentioned, weak; however, some of the people of knowledge—may Allāh forgive us and them—are lenient with Ḥadīth that are weak but are related to virtuous acts. They say: What is desired by it is to provide an incentive to do good deeds. Thus, if it was authentic, then this is what is desired, but if it is not, then there is no harm in this, since it provides the individual with a strong incentive to do righteous deeds, if it is from targhīb [i.e. providing an incentive to do good deeds] and its content was far from promoting sins. However, those [from the people of knowledge] who said this stipulated three conditions:

  1. That [the Ḥadīth] is not extremely weak.
  2. That it has a correct origin, such as a weak Ḥadīth which relates to the merit of the congregational prayer [i.e. the five daily prayers]. This has an origin, since the Sharīʿah encouraged the performance of the prayer in congregation.
  3. It should not be considered an authentic Ḥadīth of the Prophet (ﷺ), and it should not be ascribed to him (ﷺ) by using assertive expressions, [such as, the Prophet (ﷺ) said this, or he (ﷺ) did that, etc.]; rather, it should be said: It was reported, or it was mentioned or other than that.

Some of the scholars say that it is not permissible to narrate weak Ḥadīth and to spread it amongst the people, whether the conditions are fulfilled or not, because what was authentically narrated about the Prophet (ﷺ) is sufficient. This is closest to the truth, because if the door for the first affair is opened, people, [especially the common folk] will not differentiate the extremely weak from the not so weak Ḥadīth, and they will attach themselves to it and memorise it until it becomes like ʿaqīdah, [firmly rooted in their hearts]. Thus, whatever has been authentically narrated about the Messenger (ﷺ) concerning virtuous deeds is sufficient.

Doubt/Misconception 06: The Beginning of Ramaḍān Is Reserved for Allāh’s Mercy, Its Middle for His Forgiveness, and Its End for Redemption from the Fire

Like the two previous misconceptions, this misconception originated from the same weak Ḥadīth.

Shaykh Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyá al-Najmī (رحمه الله) was asked about the statement that is ascribed to the Prophet (ﷺ): "The beginning of Ramaḍān is a period for mercy, its middle is a period for forgiveness, and its end is for redemption from the Fire."15 He (رحمه الله) responded with the following: "This has occured in a weak Ḥadīth."16

Shaykh Khālid ibn Ḍahwī al- Ẓufayrī (حفظه الله) tweeted the following on 15th June, 2016:

This Ḥadīth is inauthentic. Al-ʿUqaylī, Ibn ʿAdī and al-Dhahabī have all weakened it. Shaykh al-Albānī (رحمه الله) stated: "Extremely weak" and "Rejected."

Verily, all of Ramaḍān contains mercy, forgiveness and redemption from the Fire, as came in the authentic Ḥadīth about this month: "Allah frees people from the Fire every night,"17 and "Whosoever fasted with faith during Ramaḍān, while seeking its reward from Allāh, will have whatever he has done [from sins] forgiven [i.e. he will have his past sins forgiven]."18

Furthermore, the night of decree is a night of mercy and forgiveness, and it is in the last ten nights.

Doubt/Misconception 07: Whoever Fasts the Days of Ramaḍān and Stands Steadfast in Its Nights Will Have All of His Sins—Major and Minor—Forgiven

This misconception arose due to the generality in the Ḥadīth mentioned by the questioner, as the shaykh clearly indicated; however, this generality was made specific with other evidence from the Book of Allāh and the Sunnah of His Messenger (ﷺ).

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked:

"You mentioned in the beginning of our meeting that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: 'Whoever fasted with faith during the month of Ramaḍān, while seeking its reward from Allāh, will have whatever he has done [from sins] forgiven [i.e. he will have his past sins forgiven].'19 Does this apply to both the major and minor sins, as well as the rights of the people [between themselves]? We hope for an elaboration on this issue, and may Allāh grant you tawfīq."

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) stated the following:20

This is how the Ḥadīth came, general—"will have whatever he has done [from sins] forgiven," and the word, 'whatever' is from the expressions that show generality which necessitates that all sins are forgiven; however, this generality was made specific with other evidence: that it is necessary that the major sins be avoided. The proof for that is the statement of the Prophet (ﷺ): "The five daily prayers, and from one Jumuʿah prayer to the next, and from one Ramaḍān to the next are expiations for the sins committed in between their intervals, providing no major sins were committed."21

Therefore, this generality was made specific by the Sunnah, by his (ﷺ) statement: 'From Ramaḍān to the next are expiations for the sins committed in between their intervals, providing no major sins were committed.'

In addition to this, Shaykh ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al-ʿAbbād (حفظه الله) stated the following when commenting on the Ḥadīth: "Whosoever performs [supererogatory] prayers at night during the month of Ramaḍān, with faith and in the hope of receiving Allāh's reward, will have whatever he has done [from sins] forgiven [i.e. he will have his past sins forgiven,"22 This is as it relates to the minor sins. They are expiated by the performance of good deeds, from them is the performance of supererogatory prayers during the nights of Ramaḍān. As for the major sins, then its expiation requires tawbah, having remorse and having the determination to never return to them."23

Doubt/Misconception 08: Whoever Fasts the Days of Ramaḍān and Stands Steadfast in Its Nights Will Have All His Sins Forgiven Unconditionally

This misconception originated from carelessness and absent-mindedness, since forgiveness based upon the Ḥadīth below is conditional. Two of these conditions are stated in the said Ḥadīth. The first of them being, having faith. The second and final condition mentioned is seeking Allāh's reward and recompense. A third condition is stipulated which is not found in this Ḥadīth but is found in other texts; that the individual must have avoided major sins. Thus, the forgiveness which is mentioned in the Ḥadīth is conditional.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) when commenting on the Ḥadīth "Whosoever fasted with faith during Ramaḍān, while seeking its reward from Allāh will have his sins forgiven [i.e. he will have his past sins forgiven]"1 stated:2

'Whoever fasted with faith during Ramaḍān,' meaning, faith in Allāh and believing that fasting is compulsory. 'While seeking,' meaning, while seeking Allāh’s reward and recompense. Thus, it is necessary for these two things: faith and seeking Allāh’s reward. So whoever observed fasting based upon this description, will have his past sins forgiven.

However, there are some Aḥadīth that have been reported which state that what is meant by this is other than the major sins [i.e. the minor sins], since they [the major sins] require sincere tawbah.
 

3. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Laws of Fasting in Ramaḍān and Their Clarification

Doubt/Misconception 01: The Intention to Commence the Fast Must Be Uttered upon the Tongue

The origin of this misconception can be ascribed to people’s ignorance of the laws of Islām.

Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله) said: “Know that articulating the intention was not legislated when making Ḥajj or when doing any other form of worship—like praying, fasting, or purifying one’s self—rather, the intention exists in the heart. As for uttering it, then this is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance, and all misguidance leads to the Fire.”37

Shaykh Muqbil ibn Hādī al-Wādiʿī (رحمه الله) was asked: “Is there anything to articulate when making the intention to fast?”

He (رحمه الله) said: “There isn't anything to articulate when making the intention to fast, and what is correct is that the intention is not vocalized for any form of worship, not even Ḥajj.”38

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān  (حفظه الله) said: “The place for the intention for all acts of worship is the heart, and articulating it [upon the tongue] is impermissible because it has never been reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) or his Companions would say: “I intend to fast,” “I intend to pray,” or other than that. Therefore, vocalizing the intention is an innovation and a newly invented affair.”39

 

Doubt/Misconception 02: Fasting Commences and Ends with the Aẓān

Failure to realise that our fast commences and ends at specific times of the day—as Allāh clearly stated: “Eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until sunset” [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:187] — is the origin of this misconception.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: "Is it necessary for the one intending to fast to cease eating and drinking upon the commencement or the end of the aẓān?"

He (رحمه الله) said:1

This ruling is dependent upon the time of dawn; therefore, whether or not the aẓān was made, a person must cease eating and drinking whenever dawn comes. However, whether or not the aẓān was made, ceasing to eat and drink isn't compulsory if dawn didn’t enter because of His statement:

"فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّـهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّـهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّـهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ"

“So have relations with them now, and seek that which Allāh has decreed for you. Eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until sunset. Don’t have relations with them as long as you are performing I‘tikāf in the masjid. These are the limits set by Allāh, so don’t approach them. Thus, Allāh makes clear His ordinances to the people so they may become righteous” [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:187].

His statement:

"حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ"

Until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]” is evidence that an individual can eat and drink while being doubtful if dawn entered because the general principle is that the night continues, and if this is so, then the general principle isn’t abandoned, except in the case of certainty. Therefore, if the muʿazzin is known only to call the aẓān when dawn enters, then the individual must cease from eating and drinking as soon as he hears it because the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Bilāl (رضي الله عنه) calls the aẓān during the night, so eat and drink until you hear Ibn Umm Makhtūm (رضي الله عنه) calling the aẓān, for indeed, he doesn't pronounce it until it is dawn.”

 

Doubt/Misconception 03: The Fasting Person Must Not Only Stop Eating and Drinking a Few Minutes before the Time to Commence the Fast, but He Must Also Wait a Few Minutes after the Time to Break the Fast to End His Fast

Over ambitiousness to safeguard one’s fast often leads many people to do the above. They are unaware of the fact that taking precautionary measures in worship involves adhering to the legislation, not defying it.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: “What is the ruling on calling the Fajr aẓān before its time?"

He (رحمه الله) said:41

Whoever calls the aẓān before its time during the days of fast has hastened to call the aẓān. People claim that they are taking the necessary precautions to safeguard their fast, but they—[in reality]—have erred, since taking precautionary measures in worship is adhering to the legislation. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Eat and drink until you hear Ibn Umm Maktūm (رضي الله عنه) calling the aẓān, for indeed, he doesn't pronounce it until it is dawn.” He (ﷺ) didn’t say: “[Eat and drink] until dawn was close.” Therefore, the mu‘azzin should take the necessary precautionary measures by waiting to call the aẓān at dawn, [its prescribed time]. 

 

Doubt/Misconception 04: Partaking of the Suhūr while the Aẓān Is Being Made Is Prohibited in All Cases

Blind following and ignorance of the Prophetic Sunnah lead many people to the conclusion that continuing to partake of the suhūr at the onset of the aẓān is impermissible.

While commenting on the Ḥadīth: “If anyone of you hears the call to prayer while having a vessel in his hand, he should not put it down until he has his fill from it,”42 Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله) said: “In it is a proof that if someone had a vessel containing food or drink in his hand at the time of dawn, then having his fill from it is permissible.”43   

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) said during his commentary of this Ḥadīth:44

This Ḥadīth can be explained from two perspectives:

[1] That the muʿazzin calls the aẓān based upon an estimation, like those who call the aẓān presently. This means that he may or may not call it at its correct time.

[2] That the muʿazzin calls the aẓān based upon certainty. This [i.e. continuing to partake of the suhūr while the aẓān is initially being called] is a concession. When a person raises a vessel of water to drink from it, he becomes attached to the water, so from Allāh's mercy is that he can fulfil his craving. Therefore, if the vessel was on the ground [or on the table during the onset of the aẓān], he shouldn't pick it up to drink from it. The water vessel must be in your hand; otherwise, you will not be attached to the water you are about to drink.

Similarly, if food was brought in front of you before the imām started praying, then you should partake of the food, even if you miss the prayer [in congregation]. Because you have become attached to the food that was placed in front of you [prior to the congregational prayer], praying in congregation no longer becomes compulsory.

 

Doubt/Misconception 05: Food in the Mouth Must Be Expelled when the Aẓān Is Called to Commence the Fast

As aforementioned, blind following and ignorance of the Prophetic Sunnah lead many people to do this.

When commenting on the previous Ḥadīth: “If anyone of you hears the call to prayer while having a vessel in his hand, he should not put it down until he has his fill from it,”45 Shaykh ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al-ʿAbbād (حفظه الله) stated:46

If the mu‘azzin—whom people rely upon to know the prayer times—begins to call the aẓān and a person was already drinking something, then he should finish his drink. He shouldn't, however, start to drink after the aẓān. Hastening to start to drink something upon hearing the aẓān is impermissible, since the aẓān occurs after the time for prayer enters, and eating and drinking after that time is prohibited. The fajr prayer is legislated at that time because it is the time of dawn. As for eating and drinking at that time for the one desiring to fast, then his time has expired for doing that.

Therefore, if the mu‘azzin calls the aẓān and a person is drinking, he should finish his drink; however, if he didn't start to drink, then it is impermissible for him to start drinking.

It is said about this issues: “What is permissible to continue doing may not necessarily be permissible to start doing” meaning, starting to drink [on the onset of dawn] is impermissible; however, if a person had already started to drink, he can finish his drink. This doesn't mean that he should expel what is in his mouth and cease from drinking; rather, he should swallow whatever was in his mouth and finish his drink, since the One Who specified the time interval for fasting is the very One Who exempted this scenario. Therefore, what is permissible to continue doing may not necessarily be permissible to start doing.     

Furthermore, thinking that a person can place his hand on a glass and he can begin to drink upon hearing the aẓān is a total misunderstanding of this Ḥadīth. This is impermissible. If he didn’t start to drink [before the aẓān], he shouldn't start to drink [upon hearing it]. He should fulfil his craving before the aẓān; however, if he began to drink and the muʿazzin starts to make the aẓān, then he should finish his drink.

In addition, if one glass didn’t quench his thirst, taking a second glass isn't allowed, since the Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Until he has his fill from it” meaning, from the glass that was [already] in his hand.

Finally, if he was drinking something, like water, then this applies. As for food, then it doesn't.  

Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله) was asked: “Is expelling food that already existed in the mouth at the onset of dawn mandatory?”

He (رحمه الله) said: “This is blind following what is present in some books of fiqh. There isn’t any proof for this from the Messenger’s (ﷺ) Sunnah; rather, this is in opposition to his statement: ‘If anyone of you hears the call to prayer while having a vessel in his hand, he should not put it down until he has his fill from it.’”47

 

Doubt/Misconception 06: Both Ear Drops and Eye Drops Break the Fast

The origin of this misconception can be ascribed to people’s ignorance of the laws of Islām.

Questioned about eye drops, ear drops, and nose drops, Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) said:48

Based upon the most correct of the two opinions, ear drops and eye drops don’t break the fast. If the fasting person experiences the taste of the drops in his throat, then making it up is safer, but it isn't mandatory because the eyes and ears aren't openings for food and drink. As for nose drops, then using it while fasting is impermissible because the nose is a opening [that leads to the stomach]. Consequently, the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Exaggerate when snorting water into your nose, except when you are fasting.”49 Therefore, whoever uses nose drops [while fasting] must make up his fast due to this Ḥadīth and those Aḥādīth that are similar in meaning [especially] if he experiences the taste of the nasal drops at the back of his throat.      

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) also said:50

Certainly, eye drops and ear drops don’t break the fast because using them doesn't involve eating and drinking, nor does it resemble eating and drinking. Furthermore, the eyes and ears aren't from the customary passages food reaches the stomach. However, if something enters the throat via the nose, then the fast is broken. Consequently, the Prophet (ﷺ) said to Laqīt ibn Ṣabirah: “Exaggerate when snorting water into your nose, except when you are fasting.”

 

Doubt/Misconception 07: Fasting Merely Entails the Abandonment of Whatever Breaks the Fast from the Consumption of Food and Drink to Fulfilling One's Desires

Yet again, the origin of this misconception can be ascribed to people’s ignorance of the laws of Islām.

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān  (حفظه الله) said:51

A fasting person may experience severe hunger, thirst, and fatigue, yet he may not receive any reward from Allāh—The Mighty and Majestic—because he:

  1. Engaged in ḥarām speech
  2. Looked at ḥarām things
  3. Listened to ḥarām things

He—in reality—didn’t fast; rather, he only abstained from food and drink. Consequently, he tires himself out without any benefit.

Thus, fasting consists of all of the following things:

  1. Abstaining from food, drink, and the rest of the things that break the fast, which is the fast of the body
  2. Abstaining from listening to anything that is ḥarām, which is the fast of the ears
  3. Abstaining from looking at everything Allāh has made ḥarām to look at, which is the fast of the eyes
  4. Abstaining from obscene speech and profanity, which is the fast of the tongue

As a result, all of the limbs fast.

He (حفظه الله) also stated: “Fasting is not merely abandoning food, drink and desires; it is also refraining from everything that Allāh has made ḥarām.”52   

 

4. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Tarāwīḥ Prayer

Doubt/Misconception 01: The Tarāwīḥ Prayer Is a Good Innovation

There is no doubt that this misconception arose due to a lack of understanding of the linguistic and technical meaning of the term bidʿah and the inability to differentiate between them.

Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) was asked: "Is innovation divided into good and evil?"

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) stated:26

"What is correct is that every innovation is misguidance. Some scholars say: Good innovation, such as the compilation of the Muṣhaf and the tarāwīḥ prayer, but what is correct is that all innovations are misguidance. There is nothing in them that is good. He (ﷺ) said: 'Every innovation is misguidance,'27 and he did not differentiate [between good and bad].

Therefore, the compilation of the Muṣhaf is not an innovation, but rather, the Companions compiled it since they were commanded to preserve the Book of Allāh. Thus, preserving and taking care of it so that nothing is lost is a command, making it compulsory.

Likewise, the tarāwīḥ prayer is not an innovation since the Prophet (ﷺ) performed it. [As for] the statement of ʿUmar (رضي الله عنه): 'What a great innovation this is' when he gathered the people under one imām, then what he did was an innovation from a linguistic sense, since the continuous performance of the tarāwīḥ prayer under one imām [from the beginning of Ramaḍān till its very end] did not occur in the time of the Prophet (ﷺ). Hence, he called it an innovation from a linguistic sense; otherwise, it is a Sunnah since the Prophet (ﷺ) performed it with the Companions for a few nights.'"

Doubt/Misconception 02: Congregating in the Masjid to Perform the Tarāwīḥ Prayer Is an Innovation

Like the previous misconception, this misconception originated from the same lack of understanding of both the linguistic and technical meaning of the term bidʿah and the inability to differentiate between them.

Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله) said:28

The use of ʿUmar's (رضي الله عنه) statement: "What a great innovation this is" has been commonly used amongst the scholars in later times as evidence for two affairs. The first, that congregating to perform the tarāwīḥ prayer is an innovation; it never occurred in the time of the Prophet (ﷺ). This is a tremendous error, and we would not be lengthy in discussing it due to its clarity [i.e. due to the fact that it is well known that the Prophet (ﷺ) performed the tarāwīḥ prayer with the people]. The aforementioned Aḥadīth which state that the Prophet (ﷺ) gathered the people for three nights in Ramaḍān, even though he abandoned them [after this time], is sufficient as evidence for us to refute this [i.e. that it is an innovation], for he didn't abandon them except out of fear of it becoming obligatory.

Doubt/Misconception 03: It Is Not Permissible to Pray Less than Twenty Rakʿah of Tarāwīḥ

It may be that the origin of this misconception lies in the firm belief of many that the Sunnah of the Messenger (ﷺ) with respect to tarāwīḥ is twenty rakʿah, and anything other than that is unacceptable and a bidʿah.

Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) said: "Some people think that it is not permissible to pray less than twenty rakʿah of tarāwīḥ. Others think that it is not permissible to pray more than eleven or thirteen, but all of this is conjecture; rather, this is an error which contradicts the proofs.”30

 

Doubt/Misconception 04: It Is Necessary to Complete the Qurʾān in Tarāwīḥ

The following question was posed to Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله): "Many of the people think that it is necessary to complete the Qurʾān in Tarāwīḥ and in the night prayer [i.e. tahajjud]. Is this correct?"

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) stated the following: "This is an incorrect understanding. It is not incumbent upon an individual to complete the Qurʾān in Ramaḍān; however, it is recommended so that the people will hear the speech of Allāh from its very beginning till its very end. As for that being absolutely necessary, then it is not.”29

 

Doubt/Misconception 05: Tarāwīḥ, Qiyām al-Layl, and Tahajjud Are All Different Prayers

The differentiation between these prayers did not occur except when people differentiated between them in two affairs:

  1. The times they are performed: People call the prayer performed at the first part of the night in Ramaḍān "tarāwīḥ", while they call the prayers performed at the latter part of the night "qiyām al-layl" and "tahajjud". As for these two, then although they are both performed in the latter part of the night, they say: “Qiyām al-layl is the prayer performed before going to sleep, while tahajjud is the prayer performed after waking up from sleep.”

  2. Their description: People call the prayer that is shorter in rukū’, sujūd, and recitation, "tarāwīḥ", while they called the longer prayer "qiyām al-layl" and "tahajjud".

Consequently, when they differentiated between these prayers, they identified each one of them with a different name; however, they—in reality—are one and the same, since they are all performed at night. Therefore, whoever performs tarāwīḥ with the congregation, then he has performed qiyām al-layl and tahajjud.

As for the differentiation itself, then it is baseless. There is nothing in the Qurʾān or the authentic Sunnah to support it.

Questioned about the difference between tarāwīḥ and qiyām al-layl, Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) said:53

There is really no difference between them. Tarāwīḥ is from qiyām al-layl; therefore, we consider the Muslims to be performing qiyām al-layl from the very first night of Ramaḍān. Consequently, his (ﷺ) statement: "Whoever performs [supererogatory] prayers at night during the month of Ramaḍān, with faith and in the hope of receiving Allāh's reward, will have whatever he has done [from sins] forgiven [i.e. he will have his past sins forgiven]"54 includes tarāwīḥ, since it is unequivocally performed at night. However, the prayer that is lengthy in rukū’, sujūd, and recitation is commonly know as qiyām al-layl, while the prayer that is shorter is known as tarāwīḥ.

This understanding [i.e that the longer night prayer is commonly called qiyām al-layl, while the shorter night prayer is commonly called tarāwīḥ] is conventional; it’s not judicial [i.e. it wasn’t derived from the Book and the Sunnah]. The judicial understanding of qiyām al-layl and tarāwīḥ is that they are one and the same as they are both performed at night.

Elaborating on this very issue, Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله) said:55

The qiyām al-layl prayer is the tarāwīḥ prayer. It is currently called the tarāwīḥ prayer, but in the past, the tarāwīḥ prayer was known as the qiyām al-layl prayer, as he (ﷺ) said: "Whoever performs the qiyām al-layl prayer [i.e. the tarāwīḥ prayer] during the month of Ramaḍān, with faith and in the hope of receiving Allāh's reward, will have whatever he has done [from sins] forgiven [i.e. he will have his past sins forgiven.]”

Questioned about the difference between tarāwīḥ, qiyām al-layl, and tahajjud, Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) said:56

The night prayer is called qiyām al-layl or tahajjud, as Allāh said:

وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَّكَ

“And in some parts of the night, offer the tahajjud prayer, reciting it [i.e. the Qur'an]” [Sūrah al-Isrā’, 17:79].

And He said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُزَّمِّلُ ﴿١ قُمِ اللَّيْلَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

“O you who wraps himself [in clothing], arise [to pray] the night, except for a little” [Sūrah al-Muzzammil, 73:1-2].

He also said about His pious slaves:

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ ﴿١٥آخِذِينَ مَا آتَاهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَبْلَ ذَٰلِكَ مُحْسِنِينَ ﴿١٦ كَانُوا قَلِيلًا مِّنَ اللَّيْلِ مَا يَهْجَعُونَ

“Verily, the pious will be in the midst of gardens and springs [in Paradise], enjoying the things which their Lord has given them. Verily, they were before this good-doers. They used to sleep a little at night” [Sūrah al-Dhāriyāt, 51:15-17].

As for the prayer that is short and is performed in the first part of the night in Ramaḍān, then the scholars call it tarāwīḥ. It can also be called tahajjud or qiyām al-layl. This isn’t a problem.

Doubt/Misconception 06: Performing Both Tarāwīḥ and Tahajjud on the Same Night Is Permissible  

Over zealousness, the misinterpretation of some texts—such as the statement of ‘Āisha’ (رضي الله عنها): “When the last ten nights [of Ramaḍān] begin, Allāh’s Messenger (ﷺ) would stay awake at night, wake his family, and tighten his waist wrapper”57—the differentiation between tarāwīḥ and tahajjud, and the existence of some reports stating that some of the Salaf allowed this led many people to perform both prayers on the same night. However, as was stated previously, there is no difference between these two prayers. Therefore, whoever performs tarāwīḥ with the congregation has already performed qiyām al-layl and tahajjud; hence, there is absolutely no need for him to pray anything else.

Seeking guidance and clarity on this matter, a concerned individual said to Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله): “O Shaykh, people have divided the night prayer in the last ten nights of Ramaḍān [into two]:

  1. [The night prayer that is performed in the first part of the night [i.e. the tarāwīḥ prayer]
  2. The night prayer that is performed in the last part of the night [i.e. the qiyām al-layl or tahajjud prayer]

This has now become a common practice!”58

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) said: “This is a bidʿah [i.e. an innovation]!”

The individual then asked: “What should we do if we wanted to establish the Sunnah and make things easy for the people?”

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) responded: Perform it early, as ʿUmar [ibn al-Khaṭṭab] (رضي الله عنه) said: “Those who delay the prayer are better.” ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) ordered Ubayy ibn Kaʿb (رضي الله عنه) to establish the night prayer [i.e tarāwīḥ] with the people after the ʿIshāʾ prayer, so he did, and when ʿUmar (رضي الله عنه) went out to look for something, he (رضي الله عنه) said: “What a good innovation this is, but those who are sleeping are better [than those performing it].”

The individual then said: “Should the affair of the night prayer then remain the same as it was before the last ten nights [meaning, should we continue to pray the tarāwīḥ prayer alone in the first part of the night in the last ten nights of Ramaḍān, as we did in the first twenty nights]?”

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) responded: “Yes!”

A youth asked Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله): “Am I allowed to pray occasionally in the last third of the night [i.e. pray tahajjud] if I had already prayed tarāwīḥ in the masjid with the congregation?”

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) stated:59

Whoever prays with the Imām until he finishes shouldn't pray in the last third of the night because the Companions (رضي الله عنهم) themselves asked the Prophet (ﷺ) to perform supererogatory prayers with them for the remainder of the night, but he (ﷺ) said instead: “Whoever prays with the Imām until he finishes, it will be recorded as if he spent the entire night in prayer.”60 This is what is apparent to me.

This [i.e. his (ﷺ) response] is an indication that an individual shouldn't overburden himself, and that praying with the Imām is sufficient, since the Prophet (ﷺ) didn’t say: “Pray as much as you desire, for the opportunity is there [for you to do so.]”  He didn’t say this; instead, he (ﷺ) said: “Whoever prays with the Imām until he finishes, it will be recorded as if he spent the entire night in prayer.” 

 

5. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with Laylat al-Qadr and Their Clarification

Doubt/Misconception 01 and Its Clarification: Laylat al-Qadr Is Not in Ramaḍān

The existence of some weak Aḥādīth stating that the annual decree occurs in the middle of Shaʿbān [i.e. the 15th night of Shaʿbān] is the cause of this doubt; otherwise, it is well established that Laylat al-Qadr is in Ramaḍān. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Search for Laylah al-Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramaḍān.”61

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) said:62

The popular belief that the annual decree occurs in the middle of Shaʿbān is false, for verily, the night the annual decree occurs is Laylat al-Qadr, as Allāh stated:

حم ﴿١  وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ ﴿٢  إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنذِرِينَ ﴿٣  فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ ﴿٤  أَ

“Hā-Mīm. By the manifest Book [i.e this Qur’ān] that makes things clear, We sent it [i.e. this Qurʾān] down on a blessed night. Verily, We are ever warning [mankind that Our torment will reach those who disbelieve in Our oneness of lordship and worship]. Therein [that night] is decreed every matter of ordainments. A Command from Us. Verily, We are ever sending [the Messengers as a mercy from your Lord]. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower” [Sūrah al-Dukhān, 44:1-4].

Laylat al-Qadr is the very night Allāh revealed the Qur’ān, as He stated:

"إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ"

“Verily, We have sent it [i.e. this Qurʾān] down in the night of al-Qadr [Decree]” [Sūrah al-Qadr, 97:1].

Furthermore, Laylat al-Qadr is in Ramaḍān because Allāh revealed the Qur’ān in Ramaḍān. He said:

"شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ"

“The month of Ramaḍān in which the Qurʾān was revealed, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion [between right and wrong]” [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:185].

Therefore, whoever claims that the annual decree occurs in the middle of Shaʿbān has contradicted these verses of the Qurʾān.

Discussing the same issue, Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl al-Shaykh (حفظه الله) stated:63

The annual decree occurs on Laylat al-Qadr, as Allāh stated:

"إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ"

“Verily, We sent it [i.e. this Qurʾān] down on a blessed night” [Sūrah al-Dukhān, 44:3].

"فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ"

“Therein [that night] is decreed every matter of ordainments” [Sūrah al-Dukhān, 44:4].

"إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ"

“Verily, We have sent it [i.e. the Qurʾān] down on the night of al-Qadr [Decree]” [Sūrah al-Qadr, 97:1].

This night, Laylat al-Qadr, is in Ramaḍān. It isn't in the middle of Shaʿbān. As for the Aḥādīth which state that the decree occurs in the middle of Shaʿbān, then their text are contradictory [to the above verses of the Qurʾān], and the majority of their chains are weak. Therefore, the decree occurs on Laylat al-Qadr, which is known to be in Ramaḍān.

 

Doubt/Misconception 02: Laylat al-Qadr Is Specifically the 27th Night of Ramaḍān

Despite the fact that there is strong evidence to support the view that this great night is most likely to fall on the 27th night of Ramaḍān, there are numerous proofs to support the fact that it could fall on another night; it is upon the Muslim to search for it.

Therefore, it may be that this misconception originated from the simultaneous reliance upon some texts and the abandonment of others, and Allāh knows best.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: "Some of the Muslims have taken the 27th night of Ramaḍān as Laylat al-Qadr. Is there any basis for this specification?"

The Shaykh (رحمه الله) stated the following:31

Yes, there is a basis for this specification. The night of the 27th of Ramaḍān is the night most likely to be Laylat al-Qadr, as is mentioned in a Ḥadīth in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, on the authority of ʿUbayy ibn Kaʿb (رضي الله عنه).

However, the overwhelming opinion of the people of knowledge—from the forty or more opinions—is that Laylat al-Qadr is in the last ten nights, specifically, in the last seven of those nights. So, it is possible that it could be on the 27th night, the 25th, the 26th or even the 24th night.

Consequently, it is necessary upon an individual to exert himself in worship during all the nights so that he does not deny himself the excellence and the reward to be gained in them.

He (رحمه الله) also stated:66

Is Laylat al-Qadr the 27th night? It can be the 27th or the 25 night, or any other night in the last ten nights, since the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Whoever seeks it [i.e. Laylat al-Qadr] should seek it in the last ten nights.”

In the very first year, the Messenger (ﷺ) knew that Laylat al-Qadr was in the last ten night, it occurred on the 21st night. It was shown to him (ﷺ) in a dream. In it, he (ﷺ) saw himself prostrating the following morning in water and mud, and rain fell [that year] on the 21st night.

 

Doubt/Misconception 03: The Purpose of Laylat al-Qadr Is to Pray a Lot

Due to the belief that there is no limit for the night prayers in Ramaḍān or any other month, and due to the misinterpretation of some texts—such as the statement of ʿĀishah (رضي الله عنها): “When the last ten nights [of Ramaḍān] begin, Allāh’s Messenger (ﷺ) would stay awake at night, wake his family, and tighten his waist wrapper”64—many people believe they must be much more diligent in their prayers in the last ten night of Ramaḍān so they will be in a state of worship on Laylat al-Qadr.

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar Bāzmūl (حفظه الله) stated:65

The purpose of Laylat al-Qadr isn’t to pray a lot, for the Messenger (ﷺ) never prayed more than eleven units in Ramaḍān or any other month. Also, what was meant by the Messenger (ﷺ) tightening his waist wrapper during the last ten nights is iʿtikāf, which was clarified in his (ﷺ) biography. Praying a lot wasn't the intended meaning.

Furthermore, the purpose of Laylat al-Qadr isn’t to perform a specific ritual. No! this isn’t its purpose. Its purpose is for the slave of Allāh to prepare and spend this night in supplication and remembrance. Haven't you see the Ḥadīth collected by al-Tirmidhī from ʿĀishah (رضي الله عنها) who said: “O Messenger of Allāh (ﷺ)! If I knew what night Laylat al-Qadr was, what should I say?” He (ﷺ) said: “Say: ‘O Allāh, indeed, You pardon, and You love pardoning, so pardon me.’” Al-Tirmidhī said: “This Ḥadīth is Ḥasan Ṣaḥīḥ.”

Therefore, the Messenger (ﷺ) didn’t direct her to pray a lot, nor to make a lot of supplication, nor to perform a specific ritual of worship; instead, he taught her this supplication.

[Ziyād related] from Mālik—in al-Muwaṭṭa’, in the Book of I‘ʿikāf, in the Chapter of What Was Mentioned about Laylat al-Qadr—that he heard that Saʿīd ibn al-Musayyib (رضي الله عنه) used to say: “Whoever was present for the ʿIshāʾ prayer on Laylat al-Qadr has taken his portion of it.” 

 

Doubt/Misconception 04: Laylat al-Qadr Can Be Seen with the Naked Eye

Shaykh ʿUbayd al-Jābirī (حفظه الله) stated when responding to the question: "Is Laylat al-Qadr seen with the naked eye?:1

It has become prevalent upon the tongue of many people that a light is seen between the earth and the sky on Laylah al-Qadr. You will see based upon what we will clarify during the answer to this question, if this is true.

First of all, we say: We do not accept such speech without conclusive evidence. This evidence is either a verse from the Book or an authentic Ḥadīth from the infallible [i.e. the Prophet (ﷺ)].

ʿĀʾishah (رضي الله عنها) said: "I asked: O Messenger of Allāh! If I realize when Laylat al-Qadr is, what should I say?’ He (ﷺ) replied: 'You should say: Allāhumma innaka ʿafuwwun, tuhibb al-ʿafwa, faʿfu ʿannī [i.e. O Allāh, You are Most Forgiving and love forgiveness, so forgive me].'" This was reported by al-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah and Aḥmad.

Aḥmad's wording [of the Ḥadīth] is: "O Messenger of Allāh! What should I say if I come upon Laylah al-Qadr?" He (ﷺ) said: "Say: Allāhumma innaka ʿafuwwun, tuhibb al-ʿafwa, faʿfu ʿannī [i.e. O Allāh, You are Forgiving and love forgiveness, so forgive me].'"

Al-Nasāʾī [also] reports in al-Kubrá: "O Prophet of Allāh! What should I supplicate with if I come upon Laylat al-Qadr?” He (ﷺ) said: 'Say: Allāhumma innaka ʿafuwwun, tuhibb al-ʿafwa, faʿfu ʿannī [i.e. O Allāh, You are Forgiving and love forgiveness, so forgive me].'"

In another narration she (رضي الله عنها) said: "O Prophet of Allāh! What should I ask Allāh for if I come upon Laylah al-Qadr?" He (ﷺ) said: 'Say: Allāhumma innaka ʿafuwwun tuhibb al-ʿafwa, faʿfu ʿannī [i.e. O Allāh, You are Forgiving and love forgiveness, so forgive me].'" 

Hence, there is no proof in the Ḥadīth, despite its varying expressions that this blessed night is seen with the naked eye.

 

6. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with Iʿtikāf and Their Clarification

Doubt/Misconception 01: Fasting Is a Condition for Performing Iʿtikāf

Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) said: "Although fasting isn’t a condition for performing I‘tikāf, performing it while fasting is better.”67

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) said:68

Is fasting a condition for the one intending to perform Iʿtikāf?

Shaykh al-Islām [ibn Taymiyyah] (رحمه الله) held the view that fasting is a condition, since the Prophet (ﷺ) would only perform Iʿtikāf in Ramaḍān, and the only reason he (ﷺ) performed it in Shawwāl was to make up for the Iʿtikāf he (ﷺ) missed that Ramaḍān.

Although fasting isn’t a condition for performing I‘tikāf, performing it while fasting is better. This is what is most correct.


Doubt/Misconception 02: Iʿtikāf Is Only Performed in Ramaḍān

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān  (حفظه الله) was asked: “Is Iʿtikāf exclusive to the last ten days of Ramaḍān, or can it be performed anytime, like the day of ʿArafah?”

He (حفظه الله) stated: “Iʿtikāf may be performed anytime; however, performing it in Ramaḍān is better. As for performing it on a specific day, like the day of ʿArafah, then this requires proof. Singling out the day of ʿArafah with the performance of Iʿtikāf shouldn't be done because the Salaf never did that.”69

When asked about the permissibility of performing Iʿtikāf in other than Ramaḍān, he (حفظه الله) said: “Iʿtikāf can be performed throughout the year. The Prophet (ﷺ) performed it in Shawwāl when he (ﷺ) was unable to do so in Ramaḍān.”70

 

Doubt/Misconception 03: Iʿtikāf Must Be Performed Every Day in the Last Ten Days of Ramaḍān

Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) said: “According to the most correct opinion, Iʿtikāf doesn't have a specified period.”71

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān (حفظه الله) was asked: “What is the ruling on performing Iʿtikāf for an hour? And what is the longest and the shortest period it can be performed for?”

He (حفظه الله) responded: “Iʿtikāf doesn't have a maximum or a minimum limit. It can be performed for an hour, ten days, a month, or two months. It’s limitless.”72

He (حفظه الله) was also asked: “Is a night or a day the minimum period for performing I‘tikāf?”

He (حفظه الله) stated: “Iʿikāf is limitless. As the scholars of fiqh say: ‘It can be performed for even an hour because the Sharīʿah didn’t stipulate a time for it.”73

In addition, he  (حفظه الله) was asked: “What is the minimum period I can perform Iʿtikāf for?”

He (حفظه الله) responded: “Iʿtikāf is limitless. Any period that can be call Iʿtikāf in the Arabic language can be considered Iʿtikāf, even if that period was an hour or half an hour. An individual will be rewarded based upon his intention.”74

 

7. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with Zakāh and Zakāt al-Fiṭr and Their Clarification


Doubt/Misconception 01: The Annual Zakāh Is due when Ramaḍān Commences

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: “Giving charity and paying the annual Zakāh in the blessed month of Ramaḍān have become a custom for many people, so are they exclusive to this month?”

He (رحمه الله) said:75

Certainly, charity isn't only given in the month of Ramaḍān; rather, giving it any time is recommended. As for paying the annual Zakāh, then if a year elapses [prior to Ramaḍān], then don't wait for Ramaḍān, unless the year elapses in a month that is close to it, like Shaʿbān. In this case, there is nothing wrong with postponing its payment until Ramaḍān; however, if the year elapses in Muḥarram—[which is far from Ramaḍān]—then paying the annual Zakāh that late is impermissible. Paying Zakāh early is permissible, but postponing its payment isn’t.

He (رحمه الله) also said:76

Like any other good deed, paying Zakāh in an auspicious occasion—[like Ramaḍān]—is better; however, whenever a year elapses and paying Zakāh becomes compulsory, a person must do so immediately. He shouldn't postpone its payment until Ramaḍān. Therefore, if  a year elapses in Rajab, then he must pay his Zakāh in Rajab. He shouldn't postpone its payment until Ramaḍān. Likewise, if a year elapses in Muḥarram, then he must pay his Zakāh in Muḥarram. He shouldn't postpone its payment until Ramaḍān. If, however, a year elapses in Ramaḍān, then he must pay his Zakāh in Ramaḍān.

 

Doubt/Misconception 02: Using Money to Pay Zakāt al-Fiṭr Is Acceptable

The blind following of some schools of thought, ignorance of the Prophetic Sunnah, and making frivolous excuses—such as using money to pay Zakāt al-Fiṭr is much more beneficial to the poor, or using money to pay it is easier upon a person—have caused many people to pay their Zakāt al-Fiṭr using money.

Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl al-Shaykh (حفظه الله) stated:77

Paying Zakāt al-Fiṭr by estimating its worth and then giving it to the poor wasn’t done in the time of the Prophet (ﷺ), nor in the time of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs (رضي الله عنهم), nor in the time of the Companions (رضي الله عنهم), nor in the time of the Tābaʿīn (رضي الله عنهم); therefore, opposing them isn’t appropriate; rather, following them is preferable.

Paying the value of Zakāt al-Fiṭr is also unacceptable as this is done privately, while paying Zakāt al-Fiṭr itself is done publicly.

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān  (حفظه الله) said: “As for paying the value of Zakāt al-Fiṭr, then it is in opposition to the Sunnah. This is unacceptable as there are no reports of the Prophet (ﷺ) or the Companions (رضي الله عنهم) ever paying its value.”78

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: “Many poor people say currently that they prefer money over food for their Zakāt al-Fiṭr because money is more beneficial to them then food, so is using money to pay Zakāt al-Fiṭr permissible?”  

He (رحمه الله) said: “In my opinion, using money to pay Zakāt al-Fiṭr is impermissible in any circumstance. Food should be give instead. If the poor person wishes, he may sell the food and benefit from the money. As for the one paying Zakāt al-Fiṭr, then he must give food.”79

He (رحمه الله) was also asked: “What is your view concerning the statement of Imām Mālik (رحمه الله): ‘Verily, Zakāt al-Fiṭr is only payed in food, not money?’”

He (رحمه الله) responded: “The opinion of Imām Mālik is that of Imām Aḥmad and Imām al-Shāfi‘ī (رحمهم الله), and it’s correct.”80

 

Doubt/Misconception 03: The Fast of Ramaḍān Remains Suspended between Heaven and Earth until The Zakāt al-Fiṭr Is Paid

This doubt undeniably originated due to the spread of a weak Ḥadīth. It states: “The fast of the month of Ramaḍān remains suspended between heaven and earth until the Zakāt al-Fiṭr is paid.”81 As a result, many people believe that their fast are only accepted when they pay their Zakāt al-Fiṭr.

After discussing the weakness of the chain of this Ḥadīth, Shaykh Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī (رحمه الله) said:82

Even if the Ḥadīth was authentic, its apparent meaning is that fasting in Ramaḍān is only accepted when Zakāt al-Fiṭr is paid. Therefore, whoever did not pay it, then his fast will not be accepted, yet I do not know anyone from the people of knowledge who have said this.

As for the interpretation that I have narrated from al-Maqdisī [i.e. that the sins that occurred in Ramaḍān are only raised to Allāh to be forgiven when the Zakāt al-Fiṭr is paid], then it is implausible, knowing that its interpretation is dependent upon its authenticity, and the Ḥadīth is weak in the first place.

Although I say this [i.e. that the Ḥadīth is weak], I know some Muftīs spread this Ḥadīth everytime the month of Ramaḍān approaches. This is from the leniency which we desire to warn the people from, let alone fall into it themselves.

 

8. Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Day of ‘Īd and Their Clarification


Doubt/Misconception 01: Attending the Places of Worship on the Day of ʿĪd Is Prohibited for the Menstruating Woman

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān (حفظه الله) was asked: “O Shaykh, is the woman allowed to attend the ʿĪd prayer, even if she is menstruating?

He (حفظه الله) said:83  

“Yes, she may attend the ʿĪd prayer and listen to the khutbah, even if she is menstruating. She should, however, avoid the prayer area, as the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered in the Ḥadīth of Umm ʿAṭiyyah (رضي الله عنها): ‘We were ordered to take our mature women and virgin girls to the two ʿĪd prayer, but the menstruating women were ordered to avoid the prayer area.’”

Shaykh Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) was asked: “Is staying home or attending the ʿĪd prayer better for a woman?”

He (رحمه الله) said:84

Attending the ʿĪd prayer is better for her because the Prophet (ﷺ) commanded the women to perform the ‘Īd prayer, even the mature women and the virgin girls, who seldom leave the house. He (ﷺ) also ordered the menstruating women to attend; however, he (ﷺ) commanded them to avoid the prayer area.

Therefore, the menstruating woman should leave her house with the other women, but she must avoid the prayer area as it is considered a masjid, and a menstruating woman isn’t allowed to stay in the prayer area. Although walking through the masjid or fulfilling some need is permissible for her, she shouldn’t remain in the masjid.

Therefore, we say: Women were commanded to participate in the ʿĪd prayer—just like the men were—because of what it contains from the remembrance of Allāh, supplication, and goodness [in general].

 

Doubt/Misconception 02: The ʿĪd Greeting: “May Allāh Accept Your Good Deeds and Mine” Was Legislated by Allāh’s Messenger

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān  (حفظه الله) said: “Nothing has been reported from the Prophet (ﷺ) about the ʿĪd Greeting; however, some of the Salaf, greeting each other, would say: ‘May Allāh accept your good deeds.’ Furthermore, Imām Aḥmad (رحمه الله) said: ‘I don’t initiate it, but if someone did, I would respond.’”85

Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Bāz (رحمه الله) stated: “There isn't any problem for a Muslim to say to his fellow Muslim brother on the day of ‘Īd or any other day: ‘May Allāh accept our good deeds.’ I’m unaware of any [specific] text to support this [supplication]; however, the believer should supplicate for his fellow Muslim brother utilizing good supplications because of the many [general] proofs that support this.”86 

 



In conclusion, it is quite obvious that the majority of these misconceptions and doubts originated either from texts which are not established and confirmed in the religion of Allāh—which only accentuates the point that Shaykh al-ʿUthaymīn (رحمه الله) emphasized when discussing the leniency of some of the scholars towards weak ḥadith and the repercussion of that, which is the fear of the people's hearts becoming attached to them—or due to a lack of understanding of its established texts.

In any case, it is necessary upon the Muslims to return to the people of knowledge as it relates to their religion; for indeed, Allāh has commanded them with this, for He has said:

فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

"So ask of those who know the Scripture [learned men of the Tawrāt [Torah] and the Injeel [(Gospel]], if you know not."
[Sūrah al-Nahl: 16:43]

In doing so, they will absolve themselves from these types of doubts and misconceptions, and with Allāh lies all success.

This is what was made easy for me to compile. In closing, I ask Allāh to keep us upon the methodology of the people of the Sunnah, those who are upon steadfastness, uprightness, firmness and clarity in their religion and to distance us from the methodology of the people of innovation; for verily, their methodology is one based upon doubts, misconceptions and desires. Surely, He is the One who answers the supplication of the supplicator.


Compiled and translated by Musa Shaleem Mohammed
13th June, 2016

Endnotes:
[1] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[2] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 20, pg. 76.
[3] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[4] رؤية الموتى بعضهم لبعض
[5] Jalasāt Ramaḍāniyyah 10/19.
[6] Reported by al-Daynawarī in al-Mujālasah.
[7] Reported by Ibn Khuzaymah in his Ṣaḥīḥ.
[8] شريط أسئلة الإذاعة بالحديدة
[9] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[10] Reported by Ibn Khuzaymah in his Ṣaḥīḥ and others.
[11] Jalasāt Ramaḍāniyyah 10/19.
[12] من أفطر يوماً من رمضان متعمداً
[13] Reported by Ibn Khuzaymah in his Ṣaḥīḥ and others.
[14] Fatāwá Nūr ʿAlá al-Darb, 2/6.
[15] Reported by Ibn Khuzaymah in his Ṣaḥīḥ and others.
[16] "حديث :"رمضان أوله رحمة وأوسطه مغفرة وآخره عتق من النار 
[17] Reported by Ibn Mājah and others, and Shaykh al-Albānī deemed it authentic.
[18] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[19] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[20] al-Liqāʾ al-Shahrī, Sitting no. 33, Question no. 12.
[21] Reported by Muslim and others.
[22] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[23] Ṣharḥ Sunan Abī Dawūd, vol. 7, pg. 448.
[24] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[25] al-liqāʾ al-Shahrī, Sitting no. 41, Question no. 5.
 
[26] هل توجد بدعة حسنة وبدعة سيئة
[27] Reported by Abū Dāwūd, al-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah and others, and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albānī.
[28] Ṣalāh al-Tarāwīḥ, pg. 50.
[29] Fatāwá Nūr ʿAlá al-Darb, 2/8.
[30] Majmūʿ Fatāwá Ibn Bāz, vol. 15, pg. 18.
[31] Majmūʿ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 14, pg. 242.

[32] إسعاف ذوي البصيرة والبصر بالتحذير من أمر خطير يشاع حول ليلة القدر

[33] Reported by al-Bayhaqī and others, and Shaykh al-Albānī weakened it.
[34] Sharḥ Kitāb al-Ṣaum min Bulūgh al-Marām, pg. 33.
[35] Silsilah al-Aḥādith al-Ḍaʿīfah, vol. 14, pg. 600.
[36] In this Ḥadīth, Ramaḍān was mentioned without being preceded by the word month. Had it been that it was from Allāh's Names—as some people think—it would have been preceded by the word month, since it is the month of Ramaḍān which possesses the merits stated in the Ḥadīth and not Allāh Himself. Therefore, when this did not occur, it was safe to conclude that Ramaḍān is not from His Lofty Names. 
[37] Ḥijjah al-Nabī, pg. 48.
[38] Faḍā‘iḥ Wā Naṣā‘iḥ, pg. 74.
[39] Itḥāf Ahl al-Iīmān Bī Durūs Shahr Ramaḍān, pg. 145.
[40] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 19, pg. 304.
[41] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 19, pg. 294.
[42] Reported by Aḥmad, Abū Dāwūd, and al-Ḥākim, and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albānī.
[43] Tamām al-Minnah, pg. 417.
[44] Jalasāt Ramaḍāniyyah, Sitting 4, Question 14.
[45] Reported by Aḥmad, Abū Dāwūd, and al-Ḥākim, and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albānī.|
[46] Ṣharḥ Sunan Abī Dawūd, vol. 13, pg. 78-79.
[47] Majmūʿ Fatāwá al-Albānī, vol. 6, pg. 7.
[48] Majmūʿ Fatāwá Ibn Bāz, vol. 15, pg. 260-261.
[49] Reported by Abū Dāwūd, al-Tirmidhī, and al-Nasāʾī, and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albānī.
[50] Fatāwá Nūr ‘Ala’ al-Durb, vol. 2, pg 11.
[51] Majālis Shahr Ramaḍān al-Mubārak, pg. 15.
[52] Majālis Shahr Ramaḍān al-Mubārak, pg. 15.
[53] Fatāwá Nūr ʿAlá al-Darb, 2/8.
[54] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[55] Silsilat al-Hudā Wa-al-Nūr, 538.
[56] الفرق بين صلاة التراويح والقيام والتهجد
[57] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

[58] Silsilat al-Hudā Wa-al-Nūr, 719.
[59] Jalasāt Ramaḍāniyyah, Sitting 1, Question 25.
[60] Reported by Ibn Mājah, al-Tirmidhī, al-Nasāʾī, and others, and Shaykh al-Albānī authenticated it. 
[61] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[62] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 20, pg. 30-32.
[63] Sharḥ Usūl al-I‘īmān, pg. 194-195.
[64] Reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.
[65] ليس المقصود بليلة القدر كثرة الصلاة
[66] al-liqāʾ al-Shaḥrī, Sitting no. 41, Question no. 9.
[67] Majmūʿ Fatāwá Ibn Bāz, vol. 15, pg. 442.

[68] Majmūʿ Kutub wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, Book No. 239, pg. 53.
[69] فتاوى في الاعتكاف
[70] حكم الاعتكاف في غير رمضان 
[71] Majmūʿ Fatāwá Ibn Bāz, vol. 15, pg. 442.
[72] فتاوى في الاعتكاف
[73] فتاوى في الاعتكاف
[74] فتاوى في الاعتكاف
[75] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 18, pg. 295.
[76] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 20, pg. 72.
[77] زكاة الفطر
[78] Al-Mulakkhaṣ al-Fiqhī, pg. 353.
[79] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 18, pg. 277.
[80] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 18, pg. 279.
[81] Reported by Aḥmad ibn ‘Īsā’ al-Maqdisī in Faḍā’il Jarīr, vol. 2, pg. 24.
[82] Silsilah al-Aḥādith al-Ḍaʿīfah, vol. 1, pg. 118.
[83] حضور الحائض صلاة العيد
[84] Majmū‘ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 16, pg. 211.
[85] al-Multaqā’ Min Fatāwá al-Fawzān, Fatāwá no. 80.  
[86] Majmūʿ Fatāwá Ibn Bāz, vol. 13, pg. 25.   

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